Directory Structures of Mac OS X, Examined and Explained

Main article: History of macOS. Rhapsody operating system. Archived from the original on Retrieved History Architecture Components Server Software. Server 1. Retrieved from " https: Operating systems by architecture MacOS.

macOS Sierra: Folders that come with your Mac

Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from October Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references Wikipedia articles in need of updating from January All Wikipedia articles in need of updating. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links. This page was last edited on 30 November , at Much of the code is platform-independent. All of the core operating-system code is available in source form.

The core technologies have been chosen for several reasons.

Kernel Programming Guide

Mach provides a clean set of abstractions for dealing with memory management, interprocess and interprocessor communication IPC , and other low-level operating-system functions. BSD is a carefully engineered, mature operating system with many capabilities. OS X combines these new technologies with time-tested industry standards to create an operating system that is stable, reliable, flexible, and extensible. The foundation layer of Darwin and OS X is composed of several architectural components, as shown in Figure Taken together, these components form the kernel environment.


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Similarly, in traditional Mach-based operating systems, the kernel refers to the Mach microkernel and ignores additional low-level code without which Mach does very little. In OS X, however, the kernel environment contains much more than the Mach kernel itself.

Components of the Mac OS X Structure

These are often referred to collectively as the kernel. Each of these components is described briefly in the following sections. For further details, refer to the specific component chapters or to the reference material listed in the bibliography. In general, the API chosen should match the part of the kernel where it is being used, which in turn is dictated by what your code is attempting to do.

Mach manages processor resources such as CPU usage and memory, handles scheduling, provides memory protection, and provides a messaging-centered infrastructure to the rest of the operating-system layers. The Mach component provides. General information about Mach may be found in the chapter Mach Overview.


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  • Information about scheduling can be found in the chapter Mach Scheduling and Thread Interfaces. The BSD component provides. The networking component provides. More information about networking may be found in the chapter Network Architecture. VFS provides for a layered architecture file systems are stackable. The file system component provides. More information may be found in the chapter File Systems Overview. OS X provides a kernel extension mechanism as a means of allowing dynamic loading of pieces of code into kernel space, without the need to recompile.

    Because KEXTs provide both modularity and dynamic loadability, they are a natural choice for any relatively self-contained service that requires access to interfaces that are not exported to user space. Many of the components of the kernel environment support this extension mechanism, though they do so in different ways. For example, some of the new networking features involve the use of network kernel extensions NKEs.

    These are discussed in the chapter Network Architecture. KEXTs make development much easier for developers writing drivers or those writing code to support a new volume format or networking protocol. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use Privacy Policy Updated: To submit a product bug or enhancement request, please visit the Bug Reporter page.

    Basics of the OS X Folder Structure

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      File Structure - MacOS Mojave Beginner Guides